Milbay LiFePO4 Battery Solutions for Electric Golf cars


LiFePO4 Battery Menu

Milbay supply a large range of standard and custom LiFePO4 battery solutions to improve the power, travel distance and remove the need for user maintenance of electric golf car battery systems.

Retail and wholesale enquiries are welcome. Contact us or Send an online Enquiry to Milbay .

LiFePO4 Advantages


  • Up to 5 times lighter than traditional lead-acid batteries.

  • Approximately 20% more power.

  • Latest development in LiFePO4 (Lithium Ferrous Phosphate) chemistry.

  • Stable Long working life - 5 to 10 Years - 1500 + recharge cycles.

  • Integrated BMS (Battery Management System) for overcharge protection, individual cell power output and recharge control.

  • Completely maintenance free.

  • Zero liquid or GEL corrosives

  • Zero corrosive gases

  • Excellent power to weight density.

  • Holds charge for more than twice as long as lead-acid batteries.

  • Delivers full power untill almost completely discharged.

  • Environmentally friendly, Recyclable, ROHS (Removal of Harmful Substance) Compliant.

Lead-Acid Battery Disadvantages


  • Short life.

  • Heaviest material, Pb Lead.

  • Delivers only 30% - 70% of battery capacity.

  • Old technology.

  • Requires maintenance.

  • NO Battery Management System.

  • Low efficiency.

  • Low return on investment.

  • Most expensive option over the devices lifespan, LiFePO4 power cells last 5 to 10 times longer.

  • More environmentally damaging.

  • Contains corrosive acid.

Connectors


Milbay supply LiFePO4 batteries with many different types of standard and custom connectors to match the original golf car electrical system to ensure easy installation and standardisation.

SB50 power connector
SB50 Power Connector

Charging


Depending on the particular golf car brand and model you may or may not require a new charger for your Milbay LiFePO4 battery system. After looking at the specifications of your current charger our specialist technicians will be able to advise if a new charger will be required to match your new custom Milbay LiFePO4 battery system.

NOTE:
Some Lead-acid battery chargers will not be suitable for recharging Milbay LiFePO4 batteries.

FAQs - Frequently Asked Questions about LiFePO4, Lithium Ion and LIPO

FAQs - Frequently Asked Questions about LiFePO4, Lithium Ion and LIPO


How to care for your lithium battery and Charger

How to care for your lithium battery and Charger

Storage
Always store any lithium type battery (LIPO - Polymer, LiIon - Lithium Ion, LFP - LifePO4 Lithium Ferrous Phosphate) with a full charge and batteries should be recharged every 3 months.
Recharging
Recharge your lithium battery after every use regardless of the level of discharge ie. how much the battery has been drained during use. Lithium batteries will last longer and provide better power output if recharged after every use, the more shallow the Depth Of Discharge (D.O.D) the greater the recharge cycles.
Chargers
Most lithium batteries will last over three years if correctly maintained so it is recommended that a new charger is purchased along with a replacement battery. Each lithium battery type requires a charger that uses the correct charging method and voltage to safely charge the battery pack and provide the longest battery life.
Improvements to battery charger electronics and design may also have occurred in the time since the first charger was purchased.
Most common reason for charger failure.
A failed fan in chargers (that use a fan) is the most common reason for charger failure which can increase the chance of damage to the Lithium battery pack. The fans in the battery chargers have a limited life so repair or replace any charger that has a failed fan.
Charger electrical compliance.
Chargers that plug into the normal 240V power outlets sold in Australia must meet Australian electrical compliance, generally this is indicated by the C Tick logo or the new Single Compliance mark, as shown in image below.

What does the C rating on a Lithium battery pack mean ?

What does the C rating on a Lithium battery pack mean ?

The C in C Rating on our LiFePO, Lithium Ion and Polymer batteries is a capacity rating.
The C rating is the maximum safe continuous discharge rate of a battery pack.
10C means the battery pack can be discharged at 10 times that pack's capacity.
The Capacity rating of the battery pack is generally shown in milliamp hours, a milliamps is equal to 1/1000 of an amp.
The battery pack capacity rating will be printed on the battery pack or outer case as a number followed by mAh
Example : 2000mAh, which is equal to 2.0 Ah.

To find your battery's discharge rate multiply the number from the C rating by the pack's capacity.
Here is a calculation example using an 60V 22000mAh 10C (Electric unicycle battery pack)
Details from battery pack label : 60 volt 2200mAh -10C
2200 milliamps = 2.2 amps
2.2 Amps x 10 = 22 amps continuous discharge

Result : The 60V 2200mAh 10C battery pack can safely draw up to 22 amps continuously without causing a problem.
The cell will also have a peak value that is applicable for a few seconds or short period of maxium motor load where the motor power will peak.

What is a 'Wh' Rating, why use it to calculate power capacity ?

What is a 'Wh' Rating, why use it to calculate power capacity ?

Wh or Watt Hours is a simple way to compare storage capacities of similar batteries of differnt Ah and volatage ratings as these can be advertised in many different configurations. Wh rating takes away the guess work for consumers and is a closer measure of the actual work the storage system can produce, although ratings such as the C rating and original manufacturers quality controls will also play a role in the actual work that the system can carry out.
A simply explaination of work is how many kilometers can be travelled on a electric bicycle or how long a solar power storage unit could keep a fridge running for at night.
Example 1:
A 12V 10 Ah Lithium Ion bicycle battery would be calculated as 4 (number of cells in series) x 3.7V (nominal cell volatge) = 14.8V x 10000Mah - 10Ah (capacity of each cell) = 148Wh
Example 2:
A 60V 2.2 Ah Lithium Ion unicycle battery would be calculated as 16 (number of cells in series) x 3.7V (nominal cell volatge) = 59.2V x 2200Mah - 2.2Ah (capacity of each cell) = 130Wh
Conclusion: Although it would seem the batteries would be very different in capacity they actually can do similar work. In these examples a higher voltage system is generally considered to produce an overall more efficient design for the the simalar purposes shown. For this reason most modern brushless electric bicycle systems are 48 volts or more.

Are there different types of Lithium battery packs, what are the differences ?

Are there different types of Lithium battery packs, what are the differences ?

There are many different generations of compounds used in rechargeable lithium batteries.
LiFePO4 - Lithium Ferrous Phosphate
Lithium Polymer Commonly called LIPO
Lithium ion
LiFePO4 (or LFP) batteries uses a lithium-ion derived chemistry and shares many advantages and disadvantages with other Lithium-ion battery chemistries. However, there are significant differences. LFP chemistry offers a longer cycle life than other lithium-ion approaches.
Like nickel-based rechargeable batteries (and unlike other lithium ion batteries) LiFePO4 batteries have a very constant discharge voltage. Voltage stays close to 3.2V during discharge until the battery is exhausted. This allows the battery to deliver virtually full power until it is discharged. Because of the nominal 3.2V output, four cells can be placed in series for a nominal voltage of 12.8 V. This comes close to the nominal voltage of six-cell lead-acid batteries. And, along with the good safety characteristics of LiFePO4 batteries, this makes LiFePO4 a good replacement for lead-acid batteries in many applications such as automotive and solar.
The use of phosphates avoids cobalt's cost and environmental concerns, particularly concerns about cobalt entering the environment through improper disposal.
LiFePO4 has higher current or peak-power ratings than LiCoO
LiFePO4 cells experience a slower rate of capacity loss (greater service life) than lithium-ion battery chemistries such as LiCoO2 cobalt or LiMn2O4 manganese spinel lithium-ion polymer batteries or lithium-ion batteries. After one year on the shelf, a LiFePO4 cell typically has approximately the same energy density as a LiCoO2 Li-ion cell, because of LFP's slower decline of energy density. Thereafter, LiFePO4 likely has a higher energy density.

LiFePO4 Safety

LiFePO4 Safety

Never short circuit ANY lithium type battery or cell pack. Most system have protection circuits hower there is risk of Violent chemical reactions including extreme heat and combustion.
Never dismantle or reconfigure any lithium chemistry cell pack unless you are experienced and confident. Never reconfigure or attempt to revive falied lithium chemistry cells or cell packs as there are many immediate and ongoing safety risks that must be considered.
Safety is perhaps the most important advantage of LiFePO4 over other lithium-ion chemistries as a result of the thermal and chemical stability of LiFePO4. LiFePO4 is an intrinsically safer cathode material than LiCoO2 and manganese spinel. The Fe-P-O bond is stronger than the Co-O bond, so that when abused, (short-circuited, overheated, etc.) the oxygen atoms are much harder to remove. This stabilization of the redox energies also helps fast ion migration.
As lithium migrates out of the cathode in a LiCoO2 cell, whereas the CoO2 undergoes non-linear expansion that affects the structural integrity of the cell. The fully lithiated and unlithiated states of LiFePO4 are structurally similar which means that LiFePO4 cells are more structurally stable than LiCoO2 cells.
No lithium remains in the cathode of a fully charged LiFePO4 cell—in a LiCoO2 cell, approximately 50% remains in the cathode. LiFePO4 is highly resilient during oxygen loss, which typically results in an exothermic reaction in other lithium cells, therefor LiFePO4 (Lithium (Li) Iron (Fe) Phosphate (PO4)) cells are much harder to ignite in the event of mishandling (especially during charge). it must be remembered that any fully charged battery can only dissipate overcharge energy as heat so failure of the battery through misuse is still possible. These failures are overcome to some degree through the use of specialised Lithium Battery chargers that do not pulse the battery with charge once it has reached it's capacity.
It is commonly accepted that LiFePO4 battery does not decompose at high temperatures.

How long is the warranty on LiFePO4 batteries ?

How long is the warranty on LiFePO4 batteries ?

Lithium batteries supplied by Milbay are are covered by 12, 24 or 36 months and 10 Years warranty depending on the configuration and application. Example: Racing softpacs are covered by 12 months warranty against faulty manufacture only as is normal for components used in motor racing applications, Home solar backup batteries have 36 months warranty. Milbay MB-4850 2.4kWh LFP 4U solar battery cabinets have 10 years warranty, there are some capacity conditions that apply regarding the 10 year warranty plan, contact Milbay for more information.

Electrical Calculations

Electrical Calculations

If you need to do some calculations or are looking for electrical formulas then Click Here - Rapid tables for a great online resource that can help you out.

A history of Battery Developement

A history of Battery Developement

Year
Inventor
Activity
1600
William Gilbert (UK)
Establishment of electrochemistry study
1745 Ewald George von Kleist (Netherlands) Invention of Leyden jar. Stores static electricity
1791
Luigi Galvani (Italy)
Discovery of “animal electricity”
1800
1802
1820
1833
1836
1839
1859
1868
1899
Alessandro Volta (Italy)
William Cruickshank (UK)
André-Marie Ampère (France)
Michael Faraday (UK)
John F. Daniell (UK)
William Robert Grove (UK)
Gaston Planté (France)
Georges Leclanché (France)
 Waldmar Jungner (Sweden)
Invention of the voltaic cell (zinc, copper disks)
First electric battery capable of mass production
Electricity through magnetism
Announcement of Faraday’s law
Invention of the Daniell cell
Invention of the fuel cell (H2/O2)
Invention of the lead acid battery
Invention of the Leclanché cell (carbon-zinc)
Invention of the nickel-cadmium battery
1901
1932
1947
1949
1970s
1990
1991
1994
1996
1996
Thomas A. Edison (USA)
Shlecht & Ackermann (D)
Georg Neumann (Germany)
Lew Urry, Eveready Battery
Group effort
Group effort
Sony (Japan)
Bellcore (USA)
Moli Energy (Canada)
University of Texas (USA)
Invention of the nickel-iron battery
Invention of the sintered pole plate
Successfully sealing the nickel-cadmium battery
Invention of the alkaline-manganese battery
Development of valve-regulated lead acid battery
Commercialization of nickel-metal-hydride battery
Commercialization of lithium-ion battery
Commercialization of lithium-ion polymer
Introduction of Li-ion with manganese cathode
Identification of Li-phosphate (LiFePO4)
2002
University of Montreal, Quebec Hydro, MIT, others
Improvement of Li-phosphate, nanotechnology, commercialization
Last page Update: 10 October 2015

How to care for your lithium battery and Charger

How to care for your lithium battery and Charger

Storage
Always store any lithium type battery (LIPO - Polymer, LiIon - Lithium Ion, LFP - LifePO4 Lithium Ferrous Phosphate) with a full charge and batteries should be recharged every 3 months.
Recharging
Recharge your lithium battery after every use regardless of the level of discharge ie. how much the battery has been drained during use. Lithium batteries will last longer and provide better power output if recharged after every use, the more shallow the Depth Of Discharge (D.O.D) the greater the recharge cycles.
Chargers
Most lithium batteries will last over three years if correctly maintained so it is recommended that a new charger is purchased along with a replacement battery. Each lithium battery type requires a charger that uses the correct charging method and voltage to safely charge the battery pack and provide the longest battery life.
Improvements to battery charger electronics and design may also have occurred in the time since the first charger was purchased.
Most common reason for charger failure.
A failed fan in chargers (that use a fan) is the most common reason for charger failure which can increase the chance of damage to the Lithium battery pack. The fans in the battery chargers have a limited life so repair or replace any charger that has a failed fan.
Charger electrical compliance.
Chargers that plug into the normal 240V power outlets sold in Australia must meet Australian electrical compliance, generally this is indicated by the C Tick logo or the new Single Compliance mark, as shown in image below.

What does the C rating on a Lithium battery pack mean ?

What does the C rating on a Lithium battery pack mean ?

The C in C Rating on our LiFePO, Lithium Ion and Polymer batteries is a capacity rating.
The C rating is the maximum safe continuous discharge rate of a battery pack.
10C means the battery pack can be discharged at 10 times that pack's capacity.
The Capacity rating of the battery pack is generally shown in milliamp hours, a milliamps is equal to 1/1000 of an amp.
The battery pack capacity rating will be printed on the battery pack or outer case as a number followed by mAh
Example : 2000mAh, which is equal to 2.0 Ah.

To find your battery's discharge rate multiply the number from the C rating by the pack's capacity.
Here is a calculation example using an 60V 22000mAh 10C (Electric unicycle battery pack)
Details from battery pack label : 60 volt 2200mAh -10C
2200 milliamps = 2.2 amps
2.2 Amps x 10 = 22 amps continuous discharge

Result : The 60V 2200mAh 10C battery pack can safely draw up to 22 amps continuously without causing a problem.
The cell will also have a peak value that is applicable for a few seconds or short period of maxium motor load where the motor power will peak.

What is a 'Wh' Rating, why use it to calculate power capacity ?

What is a 'Wh' Rating, why use it to calculate power capacity ?

Wh or Watt Hours is a simple way to compare storage capacities of similar batteries of differnt Ah and volatage ratings as these can be advertised in many different configurations. Wh rating takes away the guess work for consumers and is a closer measure of the actual work the storage system can produce, although ratings such as the C rating and original manufacturers quality controls will also play a role in the actual work that the system can carry out.
A simply explaination of work is how many kilometers can be travelled on a electric bicycle or how long a solar power storage unit could keep a fridge running for at night.
Example 1:
A 12V 10 Ah Lithium Ion bicycle battery would be calculated as 4 (number of cells in series) x 3.7V (nominal cell volatge) = 14.8V x 10000Mah - 10Ah (capacity of each cell) = 148Wh
Example 2:
A 60V 2.2 Ah Lithium Ion unicycle battery would be calculated as 16 (number of cells in series) x 3.7V (nominal cell volatge) = 59.2V x 2200Mah - 2.2Ah (capacity of each cell) = 130Wh
Conclusion: Although it would seem the batteries would be very different in capacity they actually can do similar work. In these examples a higher voltage system is generally considered to produce an overall more efficient design for the the simalar purposes shown. For this reason most modern brushless electric bicycle systems are 48 volts or more.

Are there different types of Lithium battery packs, what are the differences ?

Are there different types of Lithium battery packs, what are the differences ?

There are many different generations of compounds used in rechargeable lithium batteries.
LiFePO4 - Lithium Ferrous Phosphate
Lithium Polymer Commonly called LIPO
Lithium ion
LiFePO4 (or LFP) batteries uses a lithium-ion derived chemistry and shares many advantages and disadvantages with other Lithium-ion battery chemistries. However, there are significant differences. LFP chemistry offers a longer cycle life than other lithium-ion approaches.
Like nickel-based rechargeable batteries (and unlike other lithium ion batteries) LiFePO4 batteries have a very constant discharge voltage. Voltage stays close to 3.2V during discharge until the battery is exhausted. This allows the battery to deliver virtually full power until it is discharged. Because of the nominal 3.2V output, four cells can be placed in series for a nominal voltage of 12.8 V. This comes close to the nominal voltage of six-cell lead-acid batteries. And, along with the good safety characteristics of LiFePO4 batteries, this makes LiFePO4 a good replacement for lead-acid batteries in many applications such as automotive and solar.
The use of phosphates avoids cobalt's cost and environmental concerns, particularly concerns about cobalt entering the environment through improper disposal.
LiFePO4 has higher current or peak-power ratings than LiCoO
LiFePO4 cells experience a slower rate of capacity loss (greater calendar-life) than lithium-ion battery chemistries such as LiCoO2 cobalt or LiMn2O4 manganese spinel lithium-ion polymer batteries or lithium-ion batteries. After one year on the shelf, a LiFePO4 cell typically has approximately the same energy density as a LiCoO2 Li-ion cell, because of LFP's slower decline of energy density. Thereafter, LiFePO4 likely has a higher energy density.

LiFePO4 Safety

LiFePO4 Safety

Never short circuit ANY lithium type battery or cell pack. Most system have protection circuits hower there is risk of Violent chemical reactions including extreme heat and combustion.
Never dismantle or reconfigure any lithium chemistry cell pack unless you are experienced and confident. Never reconfigure or attempt to revive falied lithium chemistry cells or cell packs as there are many immediate and ongoing safety risks that must be considered.
Safety is perhaps the most important advantage of LiFePO4 over other lithium-ion chemistries as a result of the thermal and chemical stability of LiFePO4. LiFePO4 is an intrinsically safer cathode material than LiCoO2 and manganese spinel. The Fe-P-O bond is stronger than the Co-O bond, so that when abused, (short-circuited, overheated, etc.) the oxygen atoms are much harder to remove. This stabilization of the redox energies also helps fast ion migration.
As lithium migrates out of the cathode in a LiCoO2 cell, whereas the CoO2 undergoes non-linear expansion that affects the structural integrity of the cell. The fully lithiated and unlithiated states of LiFePO4 are structurally similar which means that LiFePO4 cells are more structurally stable than LiCoO2 cells.
No lithium remains in the cathode of a fully charged LiFePO4 cell—in a LiCoO2 cell, approximately 50% remains in the cathode. LiFePO4 is highly resilient during oxygen loss, which typically results in an exothermic reaction in other lithium cells, therefor LiFePO4 (Lithium (Li) Iron (Fe) Phosphate (PO4)) cells are much harder to ignite in the event of mishandling (especially during charge). it must be remembered that any fully charged battery can only dissipate overcharge energy as heat so failure of the battery through misuse is still possible. These failures are overcome to some degree through the use of specialised Lithium Battery chargers that do not pulse the battery with charge once it has reached it's capacity.
It is commonly accepted that LiFePO4 battery does not decompose at high temperatures.

How long is the warranty on LiFePO4 batteries ?

How long is the warranty on LiFePO4 batteries ?

Lithium batteries supplied by Milbay are are covered by 12, 24 or 36 months and 10 Years warranty depending on the configuration and application. Example: Racing softpacs are covered by 12 months warranty against faulty manufacture only as is normal for components used in motor racing applications, Home solar backup batteries have 36 months warranty. Milbay MB-4850 2.4kWh LFP 4U solar battery cabinets have 10 years warranty, there are some capacity conditions that apply regarding the 10 year warranty plan, contact Milbay for more information.

Electrical Calculations

Electrical Calculations

If you need to do some calculations or are looking for electrical formulas then Click Here - Rapid tables for a great online resource that can help you out.

A history of Battery Developement

A history of Battery Developement

Year
Inventor
Activity
1600
William Gilbert (UK)
Establishment of electrochemistry study
1745 Ewald George von Kleist (Netherlands) Invention of Leyden jar. Stores static electricity
1791
Luigi Galvani (Italy)
Discovery of “animal electricity”
1800
1802
1820
1833
1836
1839
1859
1868
1899
Alessandro Volta (Italy)
William Cruickshank (UK)
André-Marie Ampère (France)
Michael Faraday (UK)
John F. Daniell (UK)
William Robert Grove (UK)
Gaston Planté (France)
Georges Leclanché (France)
 Waldmar Jungner (Sweden)
Invention of the voltaic cell (zinc, copper disks)
First electric battery capable of mass production
Electricity through magnetism
Announcement of Faraday’s law
Invention of the Daniell cell
Invention of the fuel cell (H2/O2)
Invention of the lead acid battery
Invention of the Leclanché cell (carbon-zinc)
Invention of the nickel-cadmium battery
1901
1932
1947
1949
1970s
1990
1991
1994
1996
1996
Thomas A. Edison (USA)
Shlecht & Ackermann (D)
Georg Neumann (Germany)
Lew Urry, Eveready Battery
Group effort
Group effort
Sony (Japan)
Bellcore (USA)
Moli Energy (Canada)
University of Texas (USA)
Invention of the nickel-iron battery
Invention of the sintered pole plate
Successfully sealing the nickel-cadmium battery
Invention of the alkaline-manganese battery
Development of valve-regulated lead acid battery
Commercialization of nickel-metal-hydride battery
Commercialization of lithium-ion battery
Commercialization of lithium-ion polymer
Introduction of Li-ion with manganese cathode
Identification of Li-phosphate (LiFePO4)
2002
University of Montreal, Quebec Hydro, MIT, others
Improvement of Li-phosphate, nanotechnology, commercialization
Last page Update: 10 October 2015

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